Log Files required troubleshooting the Window 7 installation

Lot of time we are unable to install the OS on fresh Computer, we do lot of tries but no luck and we don’t know what to do next, how to dig the issue, which/where to find the logs.
Here is the key to solve failures is identifying where you are in the installation process and when a failure occurs. As you are creating a new installation, the hard drive is not present initially, Windows Setup writes logs into memory, specifically in a Windows PE session (X:\Windows). When hard drive ready to use after formatting, Setup continues logging directly onto the new hard drive (C:\Windows). Whatever Log files created during the Windows PE session are temporary.

Windows Setup Scenario

When a failure occurs in Windows Setup, review the entries in the Setuperr.log file, then the Setupact.log file, and then other log files as appropriate.

Log file
Primary log file for most errors that occur during the Windows installation process. There are several instances of the Setupact.log file, depending on what point in the installation process the failure occurs. It is important to know which version of the Setupact.log file to look at, based on the phase you are in.
Setup (specialize): X:\Windows\panther
Setup (OOBE), LogonUI, OEM First Run:%windir%\panther
Windows Welcome (OOBE): %windir%\panther\unattendGC
High-level list of errors that occurred during the specialize phase of Setup. The Setuperr.log file does not provide any specific details.
Setup (specialize): %windir%\panther
Setup (specialize): %windir%\panther
Setup (OOBE), LogonUI, OEM First Run: %windir%\panther
Driver failures during the Component Specialization sub-phase of the Setup specialize phase.
Unattended-setup servicing failures.
Driver failures during the oobe phase of Setup.
An XML-based transaction log file that tracks all servicing activity, based on session id, client, status, tasks, and actions. If necessary, the Sessions.log file will point to the DISM.log and CBS.log files for more details.
Servicing log file that provides more details about offline-servicing failures.

OOBE - Out-of-box experience is the first impressions a user has with a product when opening its packaging and taking it into use. For software, it is "Welcome Screen" or "Initial Configuration" wizard screens that simplify elaborate set-up of the software
As an example, the process of installing Microsoft Windows is OOBE.  Whatever steps we do during installation comes in OOBE - to acknowledge software license terms, specify partition to install OS, "product key" etc.

Note: Information is gathered from Technet.

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